Bankruptcy is generally considered to be the debt relief option of last resort. There are several types of bankruptcy: Chapter 7 (straight bankruptcy or liquidation), Chapter 13 (reorganization of debts), and Chapter 11 (debt reorganization normally used by a business or partnership). While a successful bankruptcy can provide a fresh financial start – individuals or businesses should carefully consider bankruptcy before proceeding because of its long-term financial implications.
While bankruptcy is an option that has been able to provide a fresh start for many individuals, families, and businesses – it is a serious decision that should be carefully considered with the assistance of a financial advisor or attorney who can help determine if bankruptcy is the proper course of action.
Prior to 2005, those filing bankruptcy could choose the type of bankruptcy they preferred – and most elected to file Chapter 7 straight bankruptcy (liquidation) over Chapter 13 (structured repayment). However, rules enacted in 2005 now requires those filing Chapter 7 to pass a "means test" – to qualify, they must earn equal to or less than the average monthly income for a family of their size in their state.
In addition, before you can file for Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you are now required to complete credit counseling with an agency that has been approved by the United States Trustee's office.
While bankruptcy plays a vital role to help rescue individuals and businesses, it is important to recognize that it's not the only debt relief option.